A person's airways become inflamed, narrow and produce larger amounts of mucus than normal, making breathing difficult.
Asthma is a chronic disease that causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow, usually reversible, in response to certain stimuli.
Not all of the things that can cause asthma are known, but genetic, environmental and occupational factors have been linked to the development of asthma. A medical examination of lung function and screening for allergies can help establish the diagnosis.
Although asthma can appear at any age, it is more common for it to debut in childhood, when it is usually associated with an allergic component.
An asthma attack may include coughing, chest tightness, wheezing and shortness of breath.
An asthma attack can occur when exposed to “asthma triggers” such as:
For a correct diagnosis and treatment of bronchial asthma it is essential to have a multidisciplinary team (pulmonologists, allergists and, sometimes, otorhinolaryngologists and gastroenterologists).
Several diagnostic tests will be necessary, depending on the clinical history and physical examination:
Emergency symptoms that need prompt medical attention include:
Complications of asthma can be severe, for example:
Current asthma treatment options can effectively suppress symptoms and control the inflammatory process; however, they cannot modulate the dysregulated immune response.
MSCs are able to reduce airway inflammation in acute asthma and protect against pathological airway remodeling by suppressing inflammatory infiltrates and mucus secretion.
MSCs have been shown to decrease bronchial hypersensitivity and contribute to markedly improved lung function.