It is characterized by excess secretion of thyroid hormones; it causes goiter, hyperactivity, tachycardia and bulging eyes, among other symptoms.
It occurs when the thyroid gland secretes too much thyroxine hormone; thyroid hormones control the way the body uses energy, so they affect almost all organs, even the way the heart beats; when there is excess thyroid hormone, many of the body’s functions are accelerated.
It can occur at any age, and is more frequent in women.
The most common cause is Graves’ Basedow disease, whose origin is autoimmune; it is the body itself that generates antibodies that stimulate the gland to synthesize more thyroid hormones.
Symptoms are due to the acceleration of the body’s functions. Excessive nervousness, insomnia, palpitations, unexplained tiredness, easy sweating, poor heat tolerance, hand tremor, weight loss despite coexisting with increased appetite and diarrhea are classic manifestations.
When goiters are associated with bulging eyes, the probability of Graves-Basedow disease is very high.
If the goiter reaches a large size it can produce symptoms of compression in the neck as a sensation of pressure, difficulty to swallow food or aphonia.
In hyperthyroidism, the appearance of the classic symptoms, together with the appearance of goiter, creates the diagnostic suspicion that is confirmed with the determination of thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) in the blood, which should be elevated.
When there is suspicion of Graves’ Basedow disease, positive antibodies (antithyroglobulin, antimicrosomal, TSI) are observed.
A thyroid scan can help to clarify the type and function of the goiter and thus better frame the type of hyperthyroidism.
If hyperthyroidism is left untreated, it can cause some serious health problems, including:
Different anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids are currently used to regulate the symptoms of hyperthyroidism, but these have a high degree of side effects, which is why cell therapy with MSCs is an excellent option.
MSCs have immunomodulatory properties that prevent the progression of the disease to severe complications, in addition to reducing the presence of symptoms.