It occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin or does not use it properly or when our antibodies attack the insulin-producing cells therefore glucose remains in the blood, raising blood sugar levels.
Type 1 diabetes results from the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, so glucose accumulates in the bloodstream. Genetic and, as yet undefined, environmental factors act together to precipitate the disease.
The risk among individuals in the general population has been estimated at 0.5%.This occurs mostly during childhood and adolescence.
The main symptoms before the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus are:
Type 2 diabetes is a disability in the way the body regulates, produce and uses the level of insulin causing high sugar (glucose) levels in the blood; it is the result of two interrelated problems:
Cells in muscle, fat and liver create insulin resistance. Because these cells do not interact normally with insulin, they do not incorporate enough sugar (glucose) having as a result high levels on the blood stream.
The pancreas cannot produce enough insulin to control blood sugar (glucose) levels.
They occur mainly in adults, with a combination of factors such as being overweight or obese, not being physically active, and genetics and family history.
In type 2 diabetes, symptoms often appear slowly, over several years, and may be so mild that you don’t even notice them.
To make the diagnosis, blood tests are performed which include:
Acute complications arise from uncontrolled high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) caused by a mismatch between available and needed insulin.
Chronic complications tend to arise over the course of years or decades.
Damage to the large blood vessels of the heart, brain and legs (called macrovascular complications.
Damage to the small blood vessels (microvascular complications) causing problems in the eyes, kidneys, feet and nerves.
Cell therapy seeks to achieve a source of insulin-producing cells from mesenchymal stem cells with the ability to self-renew, stimulate and differentiate into insulin-producing beta cells.
MSC treatment provides a long-lasting reversal of autoimmunity, allowing islet beta-cell regeneration, stimulate the existing beta cells and improve glycemic control by producing the adequate insulin levels.
Intravenous injection of MSCs reduces blood sugar (glucose) levels and partially reverses insulin resistance, which accelerates glucose metabolism.
MSCs can alleviate type 2 diabetes mellitus by reversing peripheral insulin resistance and alleviating pancreatic beta-cell destruction.
Also the use of this therapy can help to prevent the complications of both diabetes types.