Hypothyroidism occurs due to low production of the hormones secreted by the thyroid, whose mission is to regulate the body's metabolic reactions.
Thyroid disease is a disorder in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones to meet the body’s needs.
The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland in the front of the neck. Thyroid hormones control how the body uses energy, so they affect almost every organ, including how the heart beats. Consequently, hypothyroidism is characterized by an overall decrease in organ activity affecting metabolic, neuronal, cardiocirculatory, digestive, etc. functions.
The most frequent cause is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis which results in a progressive destruction of the thyroid as a consequence of autoimmune phenomena.
It is more frequent in women after the age of 40, although it can occur at other ages and in men.
The onset is usually slow and progressive, the symptoms are related to a decrease in the functional activity of all the systems of the organism.
The most classic symptoms are fatigue, intolerance to cold, apathy and indifference, depression, decreased memory and mental concentration, dry skin, dry and brittle hair, brittle nails, pale skin, weight gain, persistent constipation and excessive sleepiness.
TSH determination is the most sensitive parameter for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Its elevation is indicative of insufficient thyroid function.
Generally, in addition to the elevation of TSH, there is a decrease in T4. The T3 level is often within the normal range.
In extreme situations it may progress to heart failure, generalized swelling (myxedema), respiratory failure and lead to myxedematous coma with loss of consciousness leading to a high degree of mortality.
The treatment of hypothyroidism consists of replenishing the production of the thyroid gland, it is a chronic condition, which requires lifelong treatment. Because of this, new treatment opportunities have been booming among patients, such as mesenchymal stem cell therapy.
MSCs promote the development of thyrocytes that improve thyroid function through hormone secretion and stimulation of residual functional cells.
The anti-inflammatory properties of MSCs help regulate hormone function, while their immunomodulatory activity prevents the constant destruction of the gland.